## Logical Reasoning in IQ Tests

Posted Date  06/07/2019

Logical reasoning is the process of using a rational series of steps based on critical thinking, mathematical procedures and given statements to arrive at a conclusion. It is generally a crucial section in aptitude and IQ Tests. To solve logical reasoning problems first we need to go through the given information carefully, infer as much information from the problem as possible, try to find out the hidden logic\relationship in the given information and finally based on that we can find out the answer to the given question.

Irrespective of IQ Tests, having better developed logical reasoning skills in our daily life make us able to understand, analyze, and question arguments based on statements or questions. Logical reasoning stimulates our brain senses and increases the ability of critical thinking. These skills can be used to make an argument stronger or weaker.

In IQ tests, logical reasoning questions come in various formats including Number & Alphabetical Series, Verbal Reasoning, Analogies, and other logical problems. Some of the major Logical reasoning topics are discussed below with examples.

1. Friends Classification / Odd Man out Series

Odd Man out problems is one of the important topics in logical reasoning Section. In these types of questions, A set of similar terms, nouns or things are given except the one which is different from the rest. And we have to find out that term which is not similar in properties with the others. Interesting? Let's take few examples for better understanding.

Examples

(i) Find the odd man out?

(a) Lima          (b) Algiers

(c) New York    (d) Tokyo

Correct Option: (c) New York.

Solution:

At first glance, all the options seem the name of cities, but if we pick the names one by one and try to find the difference among others, we will reach the conclusion that except Newyork all other are capital cities. Hence New York is different from the rest.

(i) Choose the word which is different from the rest?

(a) Tricycle     (b) Trident

(c) Trifle         (d) Tricolor

Correct Option: (c) Trifle.

Solution:

In all the above options Tri indicates three, but in Trifle, it doesn't indicate three, while its the name of a dessert.

2. Analogies / Verbal Reasoning

By dictionary definition, Analogy means "a comparison between one thing and another, typically for the purpose of explanation or clarification. Or correspondence or partial similarity".

In IQ Tests analogy problems are asked in a way that 2 similar terms/words are given, we need to find out the relationship between the words. Then a 3rd word is given and we have to find out the same relationship of the word with one of the words in given options. If it's not clear enough, don't worry, with the following examples it will be clear to you.

Examples

(i) Candid is to indirect as honest is to...?

(a) Frank       (b) Wicked

(c) Truthful   (d) Untruthful

Correct Option: (d) Untruthful.

Solution:

First, we need to find out the relationship between Candid & Indirect. As both refer to opposing traits. Now we need to find out the opposite to the Honest. From the above options Untruthful is the nearest opposite to the Honest. Hence option (d) is the correct answer.

(ii) Race is to Fatigue as Fast is to...?

(a) Food        (b) Laziness

(c) Hunger    (d) Race

Correct Option: (c) Hunger.

Solution:

As a result of Race is Fatigue. Similarly, the result of Fast is Hunger. Hence option (c) is the correct answer.

3. Number & Alphabetical Series

In these types of problems, a sequence of numbers is given to you and ask last, middle or first term of the sequence. To read further about it, read out our blog post on the topic "How to Solve IQ Sequences, Series & Number Pattern Problems in IQ Tests?".

Examples:

(i) 3, 6, 9, 12, 15,...?

(a) 21     (b) 18

(c) 24     (d) 19

Correct Option: (b) 18.

Solution:

Add 3 in the previous term to find next term. Hence 15 + 3 = 18 is the answer.

(ii) O, P, R, U,...?

(a) W     (b) X

(c) Y      (d) Z

Correct Option: (c) Y.

Solution:

Skipping 0, 1, 2, 3, ... alphabets give next term of the sequence. Hence skipping 3 characters after U, Y is the answer.

4. Other Logical Problems

Some of the other logical problems which we see in IQ Tests, cannot be put under some special category are discussed below

(a) Fiction      (b) Pages

(c) Pictures    (d) Learning

Correct Option: (b) Pages.

Solution:

The necessary part of a book is its pages; There is no book without pages. Now let's have a look at other options as well. Not all books are fiction (a), and not all books have pictures (c). Learning (d) may or may not take place with a book. Hence the best possible option is (b) pages.

(ii) In India, a widow can marry her brother-in-law although a man cannot marry the sister of his dead wife

(a) Always    (b) Never

(c) Often       (d) Sometimes

Correct Option: (d) Sometimes.

Solution:

As there is no such tradition hence this can happen sometimes but we cannot say that it often, always or never happens. Hence the best possible option is (d) Sometimes.

In logical reasoning problems, sometimes we feel that more than one option is correct but we have to choose the best possible option. As you have seen in the above examples to solve logical reasoning problems we need to find out the logic/relationship between the given information to reach the best possible answer. Logical reasoning is one of the important building blocks of IQ Tests.

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